Accommodations for Students in College by D.P. Hallahan|J.W. Lloyd|J.M. Kauffman|M.P. Weiss|E.A. Martinez
Processing Deficit Strategies
Guidelines for Teaching Fluency by Reading Rockets
•Provide children with opportunities to read and reread a range of stories and informational texts by reading on their own, partner reading, or choral reading.
•Introduce new or difficult words to children, and provides practice reading these words before they read on their own.
•Include opportunities for children to hear a range of texts read fluently and with expression.
•Suggest ideas for building home-school connections that encourage families to become involved actively in children’s reading development.
•Encourage periodic timing of children’s oral reading and recording of information about individual children’s reading rate and accuracy.
•Model fluent reading, then have students reread the text on their own.
•Use vocabulary-rich texts for reading
•Teach morpheme analysis
•Permit students to use dictionaries
•Teach context clues
•Encourage word consciousness through diction, word play, and learning word origins
•Expose students to the same word in different contexts
•Read aloud to students
•Encourage independent reading
•Allow students to listen to books on tape or CD while following along in text
•Teach words that the students will use while learning content
•Teach synonyms, antonyms, and multiple-meaning words
•Encourage students to discover similarities, differences, and connections between words and ideas
•Use graphic organizers and semantic maps
•Preteach content-related vocabulary words
•Explain examples and nonexamples of new vocabulary
•Have students create visual images for words learned
Characteristics of Good Readers:
•Determining a purpose for reading
•Previewing text or headings and looking at text structure
•Self monitoring for comprehension
•Adjusting rate depending on difficulty
•Selecting what is important (main idea & supporting details)
•Creating questions about the text and meaning
•Connecting to prior knowledge
•Visualizing mental images from the passage
•Asking for clarification
•Repeated readings if necessary
1.Students read selection.
2.Students generate questions.
3.Questions are reviewed during class discussion.
Short Term Memory
UNITE Paragraph Writing:
1.Unload all you know in note form.
2.Note categories and arrange facts into each.
3.Identify categories in your topic sentence.
4.Tie detailed sentences together with transitions
5.End with an exciting conclusion.
Games - to build short term memory skills
Long Term Memory
1.Wait for a short time between question and prompt.
2.This allows the student to anticipate the correct answer.
3.Increase the wait time in subsequent trials.
Games - to build long term memory skills
1.Make positive presuppositions.
2.Identify what students have done correctly first.
3.Teach “what to do when you don’t know what to do”.
4.Move from general to specific questions.
5.Set mini-goals and review progress.
6.Use a variety of questions.
7.Allow wait time.
8.Teach students to compare to a model.
9.Model “thinking aloud”.
10.Teach performance evaluation.
1.Treat all authority figures with respect.
2.Not all people you don’t know are strangers.
3.What may be acceptable at your house may not be at others.
4.People do not always want to know the honest truth when they ask.
5.Teachers do not have the same rules.
6.Teachers have expectations for students.
7.A teacher’s warning means they want you to stop.
8.Don’t interrupt unless it is an emergency.
9.Words that are acceptable with peers may not be with adults.
10.When the teacher is scolding another student, don’t ask the teacher a question.
11.Don’t always say what you think.
1.Respond calmly and directly as soon as you realize your rights have been violated.
2.Focus on the specific behavior that compromised your rights by using “I” statements.
3.Share the feelings you experienced as a result of the behavior.
4.Describe your preferred outcome and discuss how to handle future situations.
PAVES Presentation Strategy:
1. Do I know my topic well? What is the main idea? What sources did I use? What are my presentation’s major topics?
2. Have I organized my materials and discussion so that my audience can understand?
3. Will the main idea of my presentation be clear to my audience?
4. Will the major topics in my presentation be clear to my audience?
5. Am I prepared to answer simple and challenging questions?
6. Did I answer no to any question above?
7. If yes, how can I become better prepared?